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In the previous section we setup 2 different contexts to be served from different virtual hosts at different context paths. However, there is no requirement that the context paths must be distinct: you may use the same context path for multiple contexts, and use virtual hosts to determine which one is served for a given request.

Consider an example where we have the same set of DNS names as before, and the same webapps blah. We still want blah. Jetty itself has no temporary directories, but you can assign a directory for each web application, into which the WAR is unpacked, JSPs compiled on-the-fly, etc.

If you do not assign a specific temporary directory, Jetty will create one as needed when your web application starts. Whether you set the location of the temporary directory – or you let Jetty create one for you – you also have a choice to either keep or delete the temporary directory when the web application stops.

By default, Jetty will create a temporary directory for each web application. The name of the directory will be of the form:. Where 0. Once the temp directory is created, it is retrievable as the value as a File of the context attribute javax. By default, Jetty will create this directory inside the directory named by the java.

You can instruct Jetty to use a different parent directory by setting the context attribute org. The directory named by this attribute must exist and be writeable. As usual with Jetty, you can either set this attribute in a context xml file, or you can do it in code.

As before this can be accomplished with an XML file or directly in code. Here is an example of setting the temp directory in XML:. You should set this context attribute with the name of directory you want to use as the temp directory. Again, you can do this in XML:. Once a temporary directory has been created by either of these methods, a file instance for it is set as the value of the javax. There is a JVM bug concerning caching of jar contents. You can set the location of the temp directory on the command line when Jetty starts up in two ways.

First is the most straightforward, simply add it to your command line when starting Jetty. Alternately, this can be defined in a module. The jvm module packaged with Jetty is set up to add additional JVM options.

You will also need verify the line including the –exec command is not commented out, as this is required for Jetty to start a new, forked JVM. Below is an example of the standard jvm. Moreover, as has historically been the case, these temp directories inside the work directory are not cleaned up when Jetty exits or more correctly speaking, the temp directory corresponding to a context is not cleaned up when that context stops. When a work directory is used, the algorithm for generating the name of the context-specific temp directories omits the random digit string.

This ensures the name of the directory remains consistent across context restarts. Sometimes it is useful to keep the contents of the temporary directory between restarts of the web application.

By default, Jetty will not persist the temp directory. To configure Jetty to keep it, use WebAppContext. Be aware that if you call setPersistTempDirectory true , but let Jetty create a new temp directory each time i. The simplest way to do this is to create multiple Server instances.

However, if contexts need to share resources eg data sources, authentication , or if the mapping of ports to web applications is not cleanly divided, then the named connector mechanism can be used.

Creating multiple server instances is a straight forward process that includes embedding Jetty code by creating multiples instances of the Server class and configuring them as needed. This is also easy to achieve if you are configuring Jetty servers via XML. The id field in the Configure element of jetty. This can be done in the same style and layout as the existing jetty. Make sure that any references to properties like jetty.

Make sure that any deployers AppProviders refer to a different “webapps” directory so that a different set of applications are deployed. The following example creates another server instance and configures it with a connector and deployer:. It is also possible to use an extension to the virtual host mechanism with named to connectors to make some web applications only accessible by specific connectors. If a connector has a name “MyConnector” set using the setName method, then this can be referenced with the special virtual host name ” MyConnector”.

This element creates a mapping between the error-code or exception-type to the location of a resource in the web application. When handling a request generated by an error redirection, the following request attributes are set and are available to generate dynamic content:.

You can use context IoC XML files to configure the default error page mappings with more flexibility than is available with web. If no error page mapping is defined, or if the error page resource itself has an error, then the error page will be generated by an instance of ErrorHandler configured either the Context or the Server. An ErrorHandler may extend the ErrorHandler class and may totally replace the handle method to generate an error page, or it can implement some or all of the following methods to partially modify the error pages:.

An ErrorHandler instance may be set on the entire server by setting it as a dependent bean on the Server instance. This can be done by calling Server. It is possible to get a ‘page not found’ when a request is made to the server for a resource that is outside of any registered contexts.

As an example, you have a domain name pointing to your public server IP, yet no context is registered with Jetty to serve pages for that domain. As a consequence, the server, by default, gives a listing of all contexts running on the server. One of the quickest ways to avoid this behavior is to create a catch all context. Jetty limits the amount of data that can post back from a browser or other client to the server.

This helps protect the server against denial of service attacks by malicious clients sending huge amounts of data. The default maximum size Jetty permits is bytes. You can change this default for a particular webapp, for all webapps on a particular Server instance, or all webapps within the same JVM. This can be done either in a context XML deployment descriptor external to the webapp, or in a jetty-web. Set an attribute in jetty. Use the system property org. Connectors are the mechanism through which Jetty accepts network connections for various protocols.

Configuring a connector is a combination of configuring the following:. Typically connectors require very little configuration aside from setting the listening port, and enabling X-Forwarded-For customization when applicable. Additional settings, including construction your own constructor Jetty XML files, are for expert configuration only. To enable a connector, simply activate the associated module. Below is an example of activating both the http and https modules in a fresh Jetty base using the start.

When the http and https modules were activated, so too were any modules they were dependent on, in this case server and ssl , as well as any dependencies for those modules, such as the etc and ketystore directories for ssl. When modules are enabled, they are loaded with several default options.

These can be changed by editing the associated module ini file in the start. For example, if we examine the http. To make a change to these settings, uncomment the line by removing the and change the property to the desired value.

For example, if you wanted to change the HTTP port to , you would edit the line as follows:. Every module has their own set of configuration options, and reviewing them all is recommended. For additional information on the module system, please refer to our documentation on Startup Modules. Editing these module files is the recommended way to edit the configuration of your server. Making changes to the associated Jetty XML file for connectors is not recommended, and is for advanced users only.

This is provided by two different modules in the distribution. Applies a limit to the number of connections. If this limit is exceeded, new connections are suspended for the time specified in milliseconds. Limits the rate at which new connections are accepted. Jetty primarily uses a single connector type called ServerConnector. The standard Jetty distribution comes with the following Jetty XML files that create and configure connectors; you should examine them as you read this section:.

The services a ServerConnector instance uses are set by constructor injection and once instantiated cannot be changed. Many of the services may be defaulted with null or 0 values so that a reasonable default is used, thus for most purposes only the Server and the connection factories need to be passed to the connector constructor. In Jetty XML that is, in jetty-http. You can see the other arguments that can be passed when constructing a ServerConnector in the Javadoc.

Typically the defaults are sufficient for almost all deployments. You can configure connector network settings by calling setters on the connector before it is started. For example, you can set the port with the Jetty XML:. Values in Jetty XML can also be parameterized so that they may be passed from property files or set on the command line. The network settings available for configuration on the ServerConnector include:. The network interface this connector binds to as an IP address or a hostname.

If null or 0. The configured port for the connector or 0 a random available port may be used selected port available via getLocalPort. The name of the default protocol used to select a ConnectionFactory instance. This defaults to the first ConnectionFactory added to the connector. The size of the pending connection backlog. The exact interpretation is JVM and operating system specific and you can ignore it. Higher values allow more connections to wait pending an acceptor thread.

Because the exact interpretation is deployment dependent, it is best to keep this value as the default unless there is a specific connection issue for a specific OS that you need to address. For servers it is typically OK to leave this as the default true.

To avoid duplicate configuration, the standard Jetty distribution creates the common HttpConfiguration instance in jetty. A typical configuration of HttpConfiguration is:. This same httpConfig is referenced by the SecuredRedirectHandler when redirecting secure requests.

Please note that if your httpConfig does not include a secureScheme or securePort or there is no HttpConfiguration present these types of secured requests will be returned a error. For SSL-based connectors in jetty-https. Jetty holds certificates in standard JVM keystores and are configured as keystore and truststores on a SslContextFactory.

Server instance that is injected into an SslConnectionFactory instance. An example using the keystore distributed with Jetty containing a self signed test certificate is in jetty-https.

Thus Intermediaries typically implement one of several de facto standards to communicate to the server information about the original client connection terminating on the intermediary. When using those examples, it is recommended that the XML in the Jetty distribution is not edited.

Rather the files should be copied into a Jetty base directory and then modified. The X-Forwarded-for header and associated headers are a de facto standard where intermediaries add HTTP headers to each request they forward to describe the originating connection. These headers can be interpreted by an instance of ForwardedRequestCustomizer which can be added to a HttpConfiguration as follows:.

The information about the client connection is sent as a small data frame on each newly established connection. In Jetty, this protocol can be handled by the ProxyConnectionFactory which parses the data frame and then instantiates the next ConnectionFactory on the connection with an end point that has been customized with the data obtained about the original client connection.

The connection factory can be added to any ServerConnector and should be the first ConnectionFactory. TLS v1. If your Jetty implementation requires these protocols for legacy support, they can be enabled manually.

Once TLS v1. Plans for TLS v1. It is recommended to upgrade any clients using these ciphers as soon as possible or face being locked into a outdated version of Jetty, Java or even OS. By default, Jetty excludes these ciphers in the SslContextFactory. You can re-enable these by re-declaring the ciphers you want excluded in code:. If, after making these changes, you still have issues using these ciphers they are likely being blocked at the JVM level.

Configuring SSL can be a confusing experience of keys, certificates, protocols and formats, thus it helps to have a reasonable understanding of the basics. The following links provide some good starting points:. Keytool for Unix. Keytool for Windows. IBM Keyman. For testing, the keytool utility bundled with the JDK provides the simplest way to generate the key and certificate you need. You can also use the OpenSSL tools to generate keys and certificates, or to convert those that you have used with Apache or other servers.

Since Apache and other servers commonly use the OpenSSL tool suite to generate and manipulate keys and certificates, you might already have some keys and certificates created by OpenSSL, or you might also prefer the formats OpenSSL produces. If you want the option of using the same certificate with Jetty or a web server such as Apache not written in Java, you might prefer to generate your private key and certificate with OpenSSL.

The simplest way to generate keys and certificates is to use the keytool application that comes with the JDK, as it generates keys and certificates directly into the keystore. This section also applies if you have a renewal certificate to replace one that is expiring. The examples below generate only basic keys and certificates. You should read the full manuals of the tools you are using if you want to specify:.

The following command generates a key pair and certificate directly into file keystore :. The DSA key algorithm certificate produces an error after loading several pages. In a browser, it displays a message “Could not establish an encrypted connection because certificate presented by localhost as an invalid signature. This command prompts for information about the certificate and for passwords to protect both the keystore and the keys within it. The only mandatory response is to provide the fully qualified host name of the server at the “first and last name” prompt.

You now have the minimal requirements to run an SSL connection and could proceed directly to configure an SSL connector. However, the browser will not trust the certificate you have generated, and prompts the user to this effect. While what you have at this point is often sufficient for testing, most public sites need a trusted certificate, which is demonstrated in the section generating a CSR with keytool.

If you are using Java 8 or later, then you may also use the SAN extension to set one or more names that the certificate applies to:.

You might also want to use the -rand file argument to provide an arbitrary file that helps seed the random number generator. Adding -sha ensures to get a certificate with the now recommended SHA signature algorithm. For the those with heightened security in mind, add -b to get a bit key. The next command prompts for information about the certificate and for passwords to protect both the keystore and the keys within it.

The only mandatory response is to provide the fully qualified host name of the server at the “Common Name” prompt. However the browser will not trust the certificate you have generated, and prompts the user to this effect. While what you have at this point is often sufficient for testing, most public sites need a trusted certificate, which is demonstrated in the section, Generating a CSR from OpenSSL to obtain a certificate.

If you have keys and certificates from other sources, you can proceed directly to Loading Keys and Certificates. However the browser will not trust the certificate you have generated, and it will prompt the user to this effect. The following command generates the file jetty. Notice that this command uses only the existing key from jetty. You need to enter the details for the certificate again.

Once a CA has sent you a certificate, or if you generated your own certificate without keytool , you need to load it into a JSSE keystore. You need both the private key and the certificate in the JSSE keystore.

You should load the certificate into the keystore used to generate the CSR with keytool. You can use keytool to load a certificate in PEM form directly into a keystore. An example PEM file is:. The following command loads a PEM encoded certificate in the jetty. If the certificate you receive from the CA is not in a format that keytool understands, you can use the openssl command to convert formats:.

If you have a key and certificate in separate files, you need to combine them into a PKCS12 format file to load into a new keystore. The following OpenSSL command combines the keys in jetty. OpenSSL asks for an export password. A non-empty password is required to make the next step work. If you are updating your configuration to use a newer certificate, as when the old one is expiring, just load the newer certificate as described in the section, Loading Keys and Certificates. If you imported the key and certificate originally using the PKCS12 method, use an alias of “1” rather than “jetty”, because that is the alias the PKCS12 process enters into the keystore.

The generated SSL certificates from above are held in the key store are configured in an instance of SslContextFactory. Server object. While the SslContextFactory can operate without a keystore this mode is most suitable for the various Jetty Clients it is best practice to at least configure the keystore being used.

As a keystore is vital security information, it can be desirable to locate the file in a directory with very restricted access. The keystore password may be set here in plain text, or as some measure of protection from casual observation, it may be obfuscated using the Password class. This is used if validating client certificates and is typically set to the same path as the keystore. The password that is passed to the KeyManagerFactory.

If there is no keymanagerpassword , then the keystorepassword is used instead. If there is no trustmanager set, then the keystore is used as the trust store and the keystorepassword is used as the truststore password. The selection process is to process the JVM list of available Cipher Suites or Protocols against the include list, then remove the excluded ones.

The keystore and truststore passwords may also be set using the system properties: org. This is not a recommended usage. To support this, the SslContextFactory is used. The SslContextFactory will look for multiple X certificates within the keystore, each of which may have multiple DNS names including wildcards associated with the Subject Alternate Name extension. When using the SslContextFactory , the correct certificate is automatically selected if the SNI extension is present in the handshake.

New cipher suites are always being developed to stay ahead of attacks. As an example, to avoid the BEAST attack it is necessary to configure a specific set of cipher suites.

This can either be done via SslContext. Tools like ssllabs. It is important to stay up-to-date with the latest supported cipher suites.

The files can be found on the Java download page. If you have a need to adjust the Includes or Excludes, then this is best done with a custom XML that configures the SslContextFactory to suit your needs. By default, if you have these suites enabled warning messages will appear in the server logs. The Java JVM also applies exclusions at the JVM level and, as such, if you have a need to enable something that is generally accepted by the industry as being insecure or vulnerable you will likely have to enable it in both the Java JVM and your Jetty configuration.

You can enable the org. Example : Include all ciphers which support Forward Secrecy using regex:. Example : TLS renegotiation could be disabled too to prevent an attack based on this feature. To perform a server dump upon server startup, add jetty. You can also dump the server when shutting down the server instance by adding jetty.

Specifically, you will want to look for the SslConnectionFactory portion of the dump. For disabled or excluded protocols and ciphers, the reason they are disabled is given – either due to JVM restrictions, configuration or both. Dumps can be configured as part of the jetty.

Please see the documentation on the Jetty Dump Tool for more information. Jetty can be configured to monitor the directory of the KeyStore file specified in the SslContextFactory, and reload the SslContextFactory if any changes are detected to the KeyStore file.

If changes need to be done to other file such as the TrustStore file, this must be done before the change to the Keystore file which will then trigger the SslContextFactory reload. With the Jetty distribution this feature can be used by simply activating the ssl-reload startup module. When making use of the Jetty Distribution, enabling SSL support is as easy as activating the appropriate module.

For the default SSL support, simply activate the ssl module :. When you open start. If a webapp needs to redirect to a secure version of the same resource, then this is the port reported back on the response location line having this be separate is useful if you have something sitting in front of Jetty, such as a Load Balancer or proxy.

No additional Conscrypt configuration is needed. To enable client certificate authentication in the Jetty Distribution, you need to enable the both the ssl and https modules. The web application can be configured with a mechanism to determine the identity of the user.

This is configured by a mix of standard declarations and jetty specific mechanisms and is covered in this section. Once the identify of the user is known or not known , the web application can be configured via standard descriptors with security constraints that declare what resources that user may access. Below is an example taken from the jetty-test-webapp web.

The jetty-test-webapp web. Below is a simple HTML form from the test webapp logon. Security realms allow you to secure your web applications against unauthorized access.

Protection is based on authentication that identifies who is requesting access to the webapp and access control that restricts what can be accessed and how it is accessed within the webapp. A webapp statically declares its security requirements in its web. When a request is received for a protected resource, the web container checks if the user performing the request is authenticated, and if the user has a role assignment that permits access to the requested resource.

For Jetty, the LoginService performs this function. A LoginService has a unique name, and gives access to information about a set of users. Each user has authentication information e. You may configure one or many different LoginServices depending on your needs. A single realm would indicate that you wish to share common security information across all of your web applications. Distinct realms allow you to partition your security information webapp by webapp.

A LoginService has a unique name, and is composed of a set of users. You can configure one or many different realms depending on your needs. Configure a single LoginService to share common security information across all of your web applications. A LoginService is available to all web applications on a Server instance if you add it as a bean to the Server. If you define more than one LoginService on a Server, you will need to specify which one you want used for each context.

You can do that by telling the context the name of the LoginService , or passing it the LoginService instance. Alternatively, you can define a LoginService for just a single web application. Jetty provides a number of different LoginService types which can be seen in the next section. Jetty provides the following implementations of LoginService :. A user realm that is backed by a hash map that is filled either programatically or from a Java properties file.

Matching the realm-name defined in web. If only a single LoginService instance has been set on the Server then it is used as the login service for the context. The HashLoginService is a simple and efficient login service that loads usernames, credentials and roles from a Java properties file in the format:. You configure the HashLoginService with a name and a reference to the location of the properties file:.

In this implementation, authentication and role information is stored in a database accessed via JDBC. A properties file defines the JDBC connection and database table information. Here is an example of a properties file for this realm implementation:. If you want to use obfuscated, MD5 hashed or encrypted passwords the pwd column of the users table must be large enough to hold the obfuscated, hashed or encrypted password text plus the appropriate prefix.

You define a JDBCLoginService with the name of the realm and the location of the properties file describing the database:. As far as the Servlet Specification is concerned, authorization is based on roles. As we have seen, a LoginService associates a user with a set of roles. When a user requests a resource that is access protected, the LoginService will be asked to authenticate the user if they are not already, and then asked to confirm if that user possesses one of the roles permitted access to the resource.

Access granted to a user in any of the roles defined in the effective web. Access granted to any user who is authenticated, regardless of roles. While the examples above show configuration of Authorization in a web. This is especially helpful if authorization needs change over time and need updated without re-packaging the whole web app. To do this, we add a section for security constraints into the context xml file for our web app as part of the securityHandler.

If roles changed in the future, administrators could easily change this context xml file without having to edit the contents of the web app at all. In addition to the distribution, security can be defined as part of an embedded implementation as well. Below is an example which, like the one above, sets up a server with a HashLoginService and adds security constraints to restrict access based on roles. Form content sent to the server is processed by Jetty into a map of parameters to be used by the web application.

This can be vulnerable to denial of service DOS attacks since significant memory and CPU can be consumed if a malicious clients sends very large form content or large number of form keys.

Thus Jetty limits the amount of data and keys that can be in a form posted to Jetty. The default maximum size Jetty permits is bytes and keys.

You can change this default for a particular webapp or for all webapps on a particular Server instance. To configure the form limits for a single web application, the context handler or webappContext instance must be configured using the following methods:.

Web applications will often serve static content from the file system provided by the operating system running underneath the JVM. However, because file systems often implement multiple aliased names for the same file, then security constraints and other servlet URI space mappings may inadvertently be bypassed by aliases.

A key example of this is case insensitivity and 8. TXT will not match the URI constraint because URIs are case sensitive, but the Windows file system will report that a file does exist at that name and it will be served despite the security constraint. Less well known than case insensitivity is that Windows files systems also support 8.

TXT will again not match the security constraint, but will be reported as an existing file by the file system and served. The clearcase software configuration management system provides a file system where in a file name is an alias to a specific version. Unix symbolic links and hard links are a form of aliases that allow the same file or directory to have multiple names.

In addition, it is not just URI security constraints that can be bypassed. Part of the problem with aliases is that the standard web application security model is to allow all requests except the ones that are specifically denied by security constraints.

A best practice for security is to deny all requests and to permit only those that are specifically identified as allowable. While it is possible to design web application security constraints in this style, it can be difficult in all circumstances and it is not the default. T hus it is important for Jetty to be able to detect and deny requests to aliased static content. It is impossible for Jetty to know of all the aliases that may be implemented by the file system running beneath it, thus it does not attempt to make any specific checks for any know aliases.

Instead Jetty detects aliases by using the canonical path of a file. If a file resource handled by jetty has a canonical name that differs from the name used to request the resource, then Jetty determines that the resource is an aliased request and it will not be returned by the ServletContext.

TXT will have a canonical name that exactly matches that case. TXT will result in a File Resource that matches the file, the different canonical name will indicate that those requests are aliases and they will not be served as static content and instead a response returned. Unfortunately this approach denies all aliases, including symbolic links, which can be useful in assembling complex web applications. Not all aliases are bad nor should be seen as attempts to subvert security constraints.

Specifically, symbolic links can be very useful when assembling complex web applications. As such, Jetty contexts support an extensible AliasCheck mechanism to allow aliases resources to be inspected and conditionally served. In this way, “good” aliases can be detected and served. Jetty provides several utility implementations of the AliasCheck interface as nested classes with ContextHandler :. Approve Aliases using the java-7 Files. An application is free to implement its own Alias checking.

There are many places where you might want to use and store a password, for example for the SSL connectors and user passwords in realms. Passwords can be stored in clear text, obfuscated, checksummed or encrypted in order of increasing security. The choice of method to secure a password depends on where you are using the password.

In some cases, such as keystore passwords and DIGEST authentication, the system must retrieve the original password, which requires the obfuscation method.

The drawback of the obfuscation algorithm is that it protects passwords from casual viewing only. When the stored password is compared to one a user enters, the handling code can apply the same algorithm that secures the stored password to the user input and compare results, making password authentication more secure.

The class org. Password can be used to generate all varieties of passwords. For example, to generate a secured version of the password password for the user username :. When using the DIGEST method in tandem with an MD5 hash, you must hash the entire user:realm:password string or you will encounter issues with authenticating.

You can now cut and paste whichever secure version you choose into your configuration file or Java code. For example, the last line below shows how you would implement the encrypted password generated above into the properties file for a LoginService :. It will not be usable by Jetty without it.

You can also use obfuscated passwords in Jetty xml files where a plain text password is required. On Unix-based systems, port 80 is protected; typically only the superuser root can open it. For security reasons, it is not desirable to run the server as root.

On some Linux systems you can use the ipchains REDIRECT mechanism to redirect from one port to another inside the kernel if ipchains is not available, then iptables usually is :. Be aware that your kernel must be compiled with support for ipchains virtually all stock kernels are. You must also have the ipchains command-line utility installed.

You can run this command at any time, preferably just once, since it inserts another copy of the rule every time you run it. On many Linux systems you can use the iptables REDIRECT mechanism to redirect from one port to another inside the kernel if iptables is not available, then usually ipchains is.

The underlying model of iptables is different from ipchains , so the forwarding normally happens only to packets originating outside of the server itself. You also need to allow incoming packets to port if you use iptables as a local firewall. Be careful to place rules like this one early in your input chain. You can insert as many rules as required if your server needs to listen on multiple ports, as for HTTPS.

SetUID is a technique that uses Unix-like file system access rights to allow users to run an executable that would otherwise require higher privileges. Ensure that you have the http. The http. Ensure that you have changed the http port to 80 and changed the https port to if you are using SSL. The –add-to-start command will enable the setuid module for this and all subsequent executions of jetty. There are other ways to enable the module, such as for a single execution. For more information on the alternatives see the section on Managing Startup Modules.

Edit the configuration for the setuid module to substitute the userid and groupid of the user to switch to after starting. As well as opening the connectors as root , you can also have Jetty start the Server as root before changing to the non- root user.

A native code library is required to perform user switching. This code is hosted as part of the Jetty ToolChain project and is released independently from Jetty itself. Build it locally, which will produce a native library appropriate for the operating system:. If you built on a different operating system you will find the library in a different subdirectory, with the name containing the name of the operating system.

Start Jetty as the root user in your base directory, providing the location of the native library to Java. Below is an example of how to do it from the command line, assuming you are in the demo-base directory:. Solaris 10 provides a User Rights Management framework that can permit users and processes superuser-like abilities:. Refer to the Solaris 10 and Solaris 11 Security Services documentation for more information. JAAS authentication is performed in a pluggable fashion. This permits applications to remain independent from underlying authentication technologies.

New or updated authentication technologies can be plugged under an application without requiring modifications to the application itself. Applications enable the authentication process by instantiating a LoginContext object, which in turn references a configuration to determine the authentication technology ies , or LoginModule s , to be used in performing the authentication. Typical LoginModules may prompt for and verify a username and password. Others may read and verify a voice or fingerprint sample.

Jetty support for JAAS provides greater alternatives for servlet security, and increases the portability of web applications. The JAAS support aims to dictate as little as possible whilst providing a sufficiently flexible infrastructure to allow users to drop in their own custom LoginModules.

Configure a Jetty org. For example, if the web. The LoginModuleName must match the name of your LoginModule as declared in your login module configuration file see Step 2. The name of the realm-name that you declare in web. If you have more than one webapp that you would like to use the same security infrastructure, then you can declare your JAASLoginService in a top-level Jetty xml file as a bean that is added to the org.

An example:. Set up your LoginModule in a configuration file, following the syntax rules :. The top level of the distribution does not have the JAAS module enabled by default. However, there are several demo webapps – including a JAAS webapp – available in the demo-base directory of the distribution which has pre-enabled the JAAS module. The jaas. Otherwise, change the value of the jaas. Jetty will automatically use this property to set the value of the System property java.

However, should you need to, you can configure:. A CallbackHandler is responsible for interfacing with the user to obtain usernames and credentials to be authenticated. Jetty ships with the org. DefaultCallbackHandler which interfaces the information contained in the request to the Callbacks that are requested by LoginModules.

You can replace this default with your own implementation if you have specific requirements not covered by the default. When LoginModules authenticate a user, they usually also gather all of the roles that a user has and place them inside the JAAS Subject.

The example LoginModules that ship with Jetty all use the org. JAASRole class. However, if you have plugged in other LoginModules , you must configure the classnames of their role Principal implementations.

Passwords can be stored in clear text, obfuscated or checksummed. Password should be used to generate all varieties of passwords,the output from which can be put in to property files or entered into database tables. See more on this under the Configuration section on securing passwords. You can configure the JDBC connection information, as well as the names of the table and columns storing the username and credential, and the names of the table and columns storing the roles.

There is no particular schema required for the database tables storing the authentication and role information. The properties userTable , userField , credentialField , userRoleTable , userRoleUserField , userRoleRoleField configure the names of the tables and the columns within them that are used to format the following queries:. Credential and role information is lazily read from the database when a previously unauthenticated user requests authentication. Note that this information is only cached for the length of the authenticated session.

When the user logs out or the session expires, the information is flushed from memory. With this login module implementation, the authentication and role information is read from a property file. The format is:. The contents of the file are fully read in and cached in memory the first time a user requests authentication. If you want to implement your own custom LoginModule , there are two classes to be familiar with: org.

AbstractLoginModule and org. AbstractLoginModule implements all of the javax. LoginModule methods. All you need to do is to implement the getUserInfo method to return a org. UserInfo instance which encapsulates the username, password and role names note: as java. Strings for a user. The AbstractLoginModule does not support any caching, so if you want to cache UserInfo eg as does the org.

PropertyFileLoginModule then you must provide this yourself. This callback gives you access to the ServletRequest that is involved in the authentication, and thus to other features like the current Session.

This callback can be configured in your custom LoginModule implementation. Note that none of the LoginModule implementations provided with Jetty currently use this callback. For those rare occasions when this is not good enough, and you require more information from the user in order to authenticate them, you can use the JAAS callback handler org. This callback gives you access to all parameters that were passed in the form submission.

To use it, in the login method of your custom login module, add the RequestParameterCallback to the list of callback handlers the login module uses, tell it which params you are interested in, and then get the value of the parameter back. Here is an example:. Jetty supports this type of authentication and authorization through the JDK which has been enabled since the later versions of Java 6 and 7.

Also important to note is that this is an incredibly fragile setup where everything needs to be configured just right for things to work, otherwise it can fail in fun and exciting, not to mention obscure, ways.

There is a substantial amount of configuration and testing required to enable this feature as well as knowledge and access to central systems on a Windows network such as the Active Domain Controller and the ability to create and maintain service users. The name of the role will be different for your network. A corresponding UserRealm needs to be created either programmatically if embedded, via the jetty. There are a number of important configuration files with S3pnego that are required.

It is important to note that the keytab file referenced in the krb5. To do this use a process similar to this:. This step will give you the keytab file which should then be copied to the machine running the http server and referenced from the configuration files. The follows steps have been required to inform Firefox that it should use a negotiation dialog to authenticate. Set network. The follows steps have been required to inform Internet Explorer that it should use a negotiation dialog to authenticate.

You must use hostname and not the IP. To enable OpenID support, you first need to activate the openid module in your implementation. If the OpenID Provider does not allow metadata discovery you will also need to specify the token endpoint and authorization endpoint of the OpenID Provider. These can be set as properties in the start. The web. To set the error page, an init param is set at “org. An IdentityService will be automatically created for the SecurityHandler if a realm name is set, otherwise you will need to manually set an IdentityService on the SecurityHandler.

Claims about the user can be found using attributes on the session attribute “org. The OpenID scope is always used but additional scopes can be requested which can give you additional resources or privileges. For the Google OpenID Provider it can be useful to request the scopes profile and email which will give you additional user claims.

Additional scopes can be requested through the start. If security roles are required they can be configured through a wrapped LoginService which is deferred to for role information by the OpenIdLoginService.

When using authorization roles, the setting authenticateNewUsers becomes significant. If set to true users not found by the wrapped LoginService will still be authenticated but will have no roles. If set to false those users will be not be allowed to authenticate and are redirected to the error page. This setting is configured through the property jetty. Note also that it may not be possible to precompile your JSPs with one container and deploy to the other.

If you have an embedded setup for your webapp and wish to use JSPs, you will need to ensure that a JSP engine is correctly initialized. For Apache, a Servlet Specification 3. You will need to ensure that this ServletContainerInitializer is run by jetty. Perhaps the easiest way to do this is to enable annotations processing so that Jetty automatically discovers and runs it.

The Embedded Examples section includes a worked code example of how to do this. Alternatively, you can manually wire in the appropriate ServletContainerInitializer as shown in the embedded-jetty-jsp example on GitHub , in which case you will not need the jetty-annotations jar on your classpath, nor include the AnnotationConfiguration in the list of configuration classes.

You can either follow the instructions on precompilation provided by Apache, or if you are using Maven for your builds, you can use the jetty-jspc-maven plugin to do it for you. If you have precompiled your JSPs, and have customized the output package prefix which is org. You can do this using a servlet context init-param called org.

For example, suppose you have precompiled your JSPs with the custom package prefix of com. Both Jetty Maven plugins – jetty-jspc-maven-plugin and the jetty-maven-plugin – will only use Apache Jasper. If you wish to use a different compiler, you will need to configure the compilerClassName init-param on the JspServlet with the name of the class.

Classpath used for jsp compilation. Only used if org. Interval in seconds between background recompile checks. Should Jasper issue an error when the value of the class attribute in an useBean action is not a valid bean class.

Allows specifying the Options class used to configure Jasper. If not present, the default EmbeddedServletOptions will be used. Support for mapped Files. Generates a servlet that has a print statement per line of the JSP file.

The maximum number of JSPs that will be loaded for a web application. If more than this number of JSPs are loaded, the least recently used JSPs will be unloaded so that the number of JSPs loaded at any one time does not exceed this limit.

A value of zero or less indicates no limit. The amount of time in seconds a JSP can be idle before it is unloaded. A value of zero or less indicates never unload. Used if the Eclipse jdt compiler cannot be found on the classpath.

It is the classname of a compiler that Ant should invoke. If a JSP compilation fails should the modificationTestInterval be ignored and the next access trigger a re-compilation attempt?

Used in development mode only and is disabled by default as compilation may be expensive and could lead to excessive resource usage. The JSP engine has many configuration parameters. Some parameters affect only precompilation, and some affect runtime recompilation checking. Parameters also differ among the various versions of the JSP engine. This page lists the configuration parameters, their meanings, and their default settings.

Set all parameters on the org. JspServlet instance defined in the webdefault. The example below shows how to do this when using the Jetty Maven plugin. You may also add but not remove servlet-mappings. By default, Jetty does not enable async support for the JSP servlet. Configuring the JSP servlet for async is relatively easy – simply define the async-supported parameter as true in either your webdefault. This is a restriction that arises from the JavaEE specification.

This is more efficient, because jetty will only scan the jars you tell it to, whereas the Apache JSP engine will scan every jar, which can be time-consuming in applications with a lot of jars on the container classpath.

To take advantage of this efficiency enhancement, set up the org. Below is a snippet from the example:. You should make your JSF jars dependencies of the plugin and not the webapp itself. It is responsible for:. It builds the classpath using either the –lib option to start.

Separating the base and home directories allows the distribution to remain unmodified, with all customizations in the base directory, and thus simplifies subsequent server version upgrades. XML files primarily determine the server configuration. Many of these files are parameterized to allow simple injection of host names, ports, passwords and more.

You can configure the entire server with command line arguments that specify libraries, properties and XML files. However in practice the INI and modules mechanisms below reduce the verbosity of the command line.

This means that either a global start. Using both is not recommended and can lead to issues with your server. Instead of explicitly listing all the libraries, properties and XML files for a feature, the start. Modules also use their dependencies to control the ordering of libraries and XML files. For more information, refer to the section on managing startup modules later in this chapter. This includes all major components such as connectors, keystores, session managers, and data sources.

Typically there are one or more XML files per module, and these are defined and activated in the corresponding module. The simplest way to start Jetty is via the start. This command uses the start. The http module declares that http depends on the server module, uses the jetty-http.

The INI-template section is not actually used by the command above, so the jetty. The server module declares the libraries the server needs and to use jetty. The combined metadata of the http and server modules results in start.

Another way to see this is by asking Jetty what its configuration looks like by appending –list-config to the command line:.

The following is the equivalent Java command line for what the start. You can further simplify the startup of this server by using the INI template defined by the modules to create a start. Once complete, you can edit the start. The most basic way of starting the Jetty standalone server is to execute the start. Jetty is a highly modularized web server container. Very little is mandatory and required, and most components are optional; you enable or disable them according to the needs of your environment.

Instead of editing these directly, Jetty 9. You can enable a set of libraries and XML configuration files via the newly introduced module system. These are powerful new features, made to support a variety of styles of configuring Jetty, from a simple property based configuration, to handling multiple installations on a server, to customized stacks of technology on top of Jetty, and even the classic, custom XML configurations of old.

Please see Start. Resolves any XML configuration files, modules, and libraries using base vs. Uses default behavior of java. The latest releases of Eclipse Jetty are below, or as always available in Maven Central. Release notes are also made available on the jetty-announce eclipse. Jetty 10 and 11 are the most recent versions of Jetty and have a great many improvements over previous releases.

While many people continue to use older versions of Jetty like 9. The decision to use Jetty 10 or 11 depends entirely on which flavor of servlet package name needs to be used. June 1st, marks the end of community support for the Jetty 9. The most recent versions of prior Jetty releases can be found here, with their associated documentation.


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WebThe Eclipse Jetty Project. Jetty provides a web server and servlet container, additionally . AdTry Arcade for free today. Transform loops, so they sound like you. Play with unique studio-quality sounds added daily, or manipulate your has been visited by K+ users in the past month. Jetty Downloads The latest releases of Eclipse Jetty are below, or as always available in Maven Central. Note: Release notes can be found in the file included with the distribution and on the GitHub Releases page for the Jetty project. Release notes are also made available on the mailing list. WebDownloading Jetty Running Jetty Common Jetty Configuration Deploying Web .


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WebThe Eclipse Jetty Project. Jetty provides a web server and servlet container, additionally . WebDownloading Jetty Running Jetty Common Jetty Configuration Deploying Web . AdTry Arcade for free today. Transform loops, so they sound like you. Play with unique studio-quality sounds added daily, or manipulate your has been visited by K+ users in the past month. Jetty Downloads The latest releases of Eclipse Jetty are below, or as always available in Maven Central. Note: Release notes can be found in the file included with the distribution and on the GitHub Releases page for the Jetty project. Release notes are also made available on the mailing list.

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The latest releases of Eclipse Jetty are below, or as always available in Maven Central. Release notes are also made available on the jetty-announce eclipse. Jetty 10 and 11 are the most recent versions of Jetty and have a great many improvements over previous releases. While many people continue по ссылке use older versions jetty 9 download windows Jetty like 9.

Jetty 9 download windows decision to use Jetty 10 or 11 depends entirely on which flavor of servlet package name needs to be used. June 1st, marks the end of community support for the Jetty 9. The most recent versions of prior Jetty releases can be found here, with their associated documentation.

Note: The canonical repository for Jetty is Maven Central. All releases are always available there first and this download page may lag a bit update wise as post release resources are put into place. You can always посмотреть еще for Jetty releases here. Breadcrumbs Home Projects jetty Downloads. Release Metadata Resources What Version Do I Use? Prior Versions The most recent versions of prior Jetty releases can be found here, with jetty 9 download windows associated documentation.

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